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  • Antistatic agent type, mechanism and effect factors

    One. Type antistatic agent

    1.1 Anionic antistatic agent
    Anionic antistatic agents are mainly alkyl sulfonates, alkyl sulfates, alkyl phosphates, polyoxyethylene alkylphenol ether sulfates and the like. More as synthetic oil and oil antistatic agent in the plastics industry, in addition to certain alkyl phosphoric acid (or sulfuric acid) ester used in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyolefins as internal mixing antistatic agents, most of the coated antistatic agent used. Such antistatic agent and heat resistance is excellent antistatic effect, but have an adverse effect on the transparent products.

    1.2 Cationic antistatic agent
    Cationic antistatic agents are mainly quaternary ammonium salts, alkyl imidazoline cation, quaternary ammonium salts which the most common. Such highly polar antistatic agent, an excellent antistatic effect, strong adhesion to polymer materials, multi-coated antistatic agent is used, sometimes used as antistatic agents in the mix, mainly used for synthetic fibers, PVC, styrenic polymers and polar resins. But poor thermal stability, and have an adverse effect on the thermal stability of the heat-sensitive resins, there are different degrees of toxicity or irritation, it should not be used in food packaging materials.

    1.3 amphoteric antistatic agent
    Amphoteric antistatic agent mainly betaine, alkyl imidazolinium salts and alkyl amino acids, its greatest feature is containing both cationic and anionic groups in the molecule, under certain conditions, it can be displayed simultaneously cationic and anionic antistatic agent role in other types of applications have good compatibility antistatic agents, strong adhesion to the polymer material, but poor thermal stability.

    1.4 nonionic antistatic agent
    Nonionic antistatic agents are mainly fatty acid esters of polyhydric alcohols, alkanolamines, alkanolamides as well as fatty acids, fatty alcohols and alkylphenol ethylene oxide adducts, where the most widely used is the former three kinds. This type of antistatic agent, although it can not dissociate into ions, can not be leaking charge by itself conductive, antistatic effect is not as ionic antistatic agent, but its excellent thermal stability, the polymer material generally does not adversely affect the majority Non-toxic or low toxicity, and has good processability.

    1.5 polymer permanent antistatic agent
    Polymer means a permanent antistatic agent molecule containing polyethylene oxide chain, poly-quaternary ammonium polymer structure conductive elements, including polyethylene oxide, polyether ester amides, quaternary ammonium salts containing (meth) acrylate copolymer and a hydrophilic group-containing organic silicon is characterized by antistatic effect lasting, not wiping and washing conditions, a small dependence on the relative humidity of the air, does not affect the mechanical properties of products and heat resistance, but adding a large amount (typically 5% to 20%), the price is high. Silicone polymer chain due to elastic spiral structure, the arrangement of the air directed by methylation was treated fabric can eligible for soft, supple and waterproof, but silicone containing hydrophilic groups antistatic.

    Currently silicone antistatic agents are the following: ① siloxanes and polyoxyethylene ether copolymer. With the acetoxy-terminated poly allyl polyoxyethylene ether and poly methyl hydrogen siloxane addition, the formation of an antistatic agent to produce a crosslinked polymer. Antistatic for nylon, polyester finishing, can be reduced to 103Ω ~ 104Ω surface resistivity; ② aminopropyl polydimethylsiloxane and epichlorohydrin reactants. As an antistatic agent, soluble in water, 1.5 g of this antistatic agent to 1 L of water, plus 1.5 g NaAc and 0.2 gNa2CO3, mixing, heated to 60 ℃, treating fabrics impregnated, after drying fabric can better antistatic property; ③ silicone compound. Using methyl silicone oil, methyl hydrogen silicone aminoethyl acid salt is mixed with β-, acrylic antistatic agents can be used; ④ terminal sulfonic acid (or salt) organosiloxane. For acrylic, polypropylene and polyester antistatic agents, both cleaning and wetting properties.

    Tier 2 antistatic agents and mechanism

    Depending on usage, the antistatic agent can be divided into coated type and intermixing two. Coated antistatic agent is applied to the polymer surface refers to the use of a class of antistatic agents. And other general use with water or alcohol before their deployment into the mass fraction of 0,5% - 2,0% of the solution, and then attached to the polymer surface so that by coating methods such as spraying or dipping, or at room temperature and then after hot-air drying to form an antistatic coating. Such multi-cationic antistatic agents, some of amphoteric and anionic antistatic agents; antistatic agent in the mix refers to products in the process of adding to an antistatic agent within the resin. Often the quality of the resin and adding 0,3% to 3,0% of the antistatic agent after mixing molding machinery. Such non-ionic polymer permanent antistatic agent and the main anions and cations type in some varieties may also be added to use. Antistatic agents in addition to a variety of molecules of polymer materials impart certain surface lubricity, reduce the friction coefficient, suppress and reduce static charge generation, the different types of the antistatic agent not only the chemical composition and the use of different ways, but the mechanism is different.

    2.1 Mechanism coated antistatic agent
    Such antistatic agent is added to the water, the antistatic agents of hydrophilic groups in the molecule is inserted into the water, while the lipophilic groups will stretch air. When the polymer material is impregnated with this solution, antistatic agents lipophilic molecules adsorbed on the surface of the material will be. After drying the impregnation, the moisture on the polymer surface after extrusion, antistatic agent molecules have hydrophilic groups arranged side toward the air, easy to absorb ambient moisture, or by a combination of hydrogen and moisture in the air to form a conductive monomolecular layers, so that the electrostatic charge generated to achieve rapid leakage antistatic purposes.

    Mechanism of mixing type antistatic agent 2.2 Surfactant
    In the polymer material forming process, if it contains a sufficient concentration of antistatic agent, when the mixture in the molten state, antistatic agents molecular orientation on the most densely formed in the resin or resin and metal with air (mechanical or mold) interface arrangement, wherein the lipophilic group toward the interior of the resin, the resin hydrophilic group toward the outside. After curing the resin, the antistatic agent molecules hydrophilic group on the side toward the air are arranged to form a conductive monomolecular layer. In the processing and use, after stretching, rubbing and washing can cause surface defects antistatic agent molecular layer, antistatic performance drops. But unlike outer coating type antistatic agents, after a period of time, an antistatic agent molecules within the material will continue to migrate to the surface, so that the defect can be restored and re-display the antistatic effect. Because of these two types of antistatic agent by absorbing ambient moisture, reducing the surface resistivity of the antistatic purpose, it is more dependent on the ambient humidity. Obviously, the higher the humidity, the greater the molecular absorbent antistatic agents, antistatic performance more significant.

    2.3 high molecular mechanism of permanent antistatic agent
    Polymer permanent antistatic agent is research and development in recent years, a new class of anti-static agent, is a hydrophilic polymer. When their blends and polymer matrix, on the one hand due to the strong athletic ability of their molecular chains, the intermolecular proton easy to move through the ion-conductive and conductive to release electrostatic charge generated; on the other hand, anti-static capability through its specific dispersion morphology reflected. Studies have shown that: polymer permanent antistatic agents primarily in the article was fine layered surface or rib-like distribution, constituting a conductive surface layer, while in the central part of the almost spherical distribution, a so-called "core-shell structure", and This is the path leakage of electrostatic charge. Since the polymer type antistatic agent is permanently reduce the volume resistivity of the material to achieve the antistatic effect is not totally dependent on the water-absorbing surface, so the influence of environmental humidity is relatively small.

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